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Presented to the
LIBRARY of the

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO

by

Ontario

Legislative

Library

MONOGRAMS

AND
CIPHERS

N

ROYAL CIPHER

MONOGRAMS
^-CIPHERS

DESIGNED AND-DRAWN BY

A-A-TURJBAYNE

AND
OTHER-MEMBERS-OF-THE

- CARLTON -
STUDIO

LONDON'TC'&ECJACK
6-EDINBURGH

r

j

^ lit .U" in

<l) it I .11' .0.

INTRODUCTORY NOTE

IN laying out this book I have put into it the experience of
many years of actual work in the designing of Monograms,
Ciphers, Trade-Marks, and other letter devices. I have given the
work much careful thought in order to present the most useful
material, to give that material on a good workable scale, and in
such a way that any design can be quicklv found. By the
arrangement of the designs the plates form their own index. On
Plate ii will be found combinations of AA, AB, AC ; on Plate in
combinations of AC, AD ; on Plate i\ , AM, AM, AG, etc. A
device of MB would be looked for under the letter of the
alphabet first in order, B; it will thus be found in the BM
combinations on Plate xvi.

Now the letters AA have only one reading; two different
letters, AB, can be read in two ways ; while AAB can be read
in three ways; and ABC, or any three different letters, can be
placed to read in six ways.

A complete series of designs, A A, AB, BA, AC, CA, to
ZZ, would run to 676 devices; add to this a series with a repeated
letter, which would be the next in order, giving one reading only,
AAB, BBA, etc., of which there are 650, and we get 1326
combinations. This would require, if carried out with nine

*r

-

MONOGRAMS AND CIPHERS

designs on a plate, 147 plates. Our book was not to exceed
135 plates, and in addition to as complete a series as possible of
two-letter designs, there were to be included some plates of
sacred devices, designs of three different letters, and other matter
which would make a work of practical use.

By limiting the number of combinations containing the I and J,
and the O and Q, which can easily be made interchangeable in
the working, and giving but a single reading of most of the devices
containing the letters X, Y, Z, which will be the least used, I
have been able to present a good working selection of two letters
and a repeated letter in 1 1 3 plates.

Three different letters, as I have stated, can be read in six
ways. Take, for instance, the first three letters of the alphabet,
and we have

ABC BAG CAB
ACB EGA CBA

Add a fourth letter to the three, and we have four times six, or

ABCD

BACD

CABD

DABC

ABDC

DACB

ACBD

DBAC

ACDB

BCDA

CBDA

DBCA

BDAC

CDAB

DCAB

BDCA

CDBA

DCBA

INTRODUCTORY NOTE

It will thus be seen that hooks advertised as made up of
three- and four-letter combinations must he very fragmentary, as
anything like a complete work ol these units would run to an
enormous length.

Now let us see what a work of three-letter designs would
mean. ABC, ABI), etc., giving an alphabet of one reading only,
would run to 2600 designs. A book of this sort would be of
little use, as the design looked for would probably not be there,
for every one of these 2600 groups can be placed to read six
different ways; and to make a complete work of three-letter
designs, with no repeat letters even, would require a showing of
15,600 Monograms or Ciphers. But what about the three letters,
one of which is a repeat? A glance through any list of persons
will show that these have a right to be included, though they do
not occur as frequently as three different letters. Add these
to the list for a complete three-letter book there are 1976 of
them, including 26 combinations where the three letters are
the same, AAA, etc. and we have 17,576 designs to be shown.
Following the plan of nine designs on a plate, we would require
1953 plates, making a work of fourteen volumes the size of the
present book. A bulky work of this sort would not only be
unpractical, but the cost of production and the price at which
such a work could be sold, would place it beyond the reach of
most of those workers to whom we hope to appeal.

In the plan I have adopted the book is practically a complete

xi

-

MONOGRAMS AND CIPHERS

work of two-letter combinations in a single volume. A device of
any two letters will always be readily found, which should be
sufficient to furnish the designer or artisan with a base upon which
to build a design of three or more letters.

There is to-day a growing taste for severe chaste forms in
printing types and lettering; the same influence is also directing
a change of style in the more decorative Monogram and Cipher.
The florid combinations of the last two centuries are gradually
falling into disuse, and are giving place to the very simplest forms.
The aim of the present work is towards simplicity, but in order
that the book may appeal to various tastes, and thus be of greater
value, examples of many styles are included.

Each of these styles, while based on some familiar form
which has long been in use, has had its pruning, and as much
of the superfluous flourish not necessary to letter or design has

The styles included may be classed under five principal
heads Roman, Gothic, Sans Serif, Cursive or Running, and what
I might call Rustic. These styles are treated in various ways,
and in light and heavy letters. Here and there throughout the
work a design will be found that may suggest a treatment for
some particular device. These are odd pieces that have occurred
to me as the plates were in progress, the execution of most of
which would probably be more satisfactory in embroidery than
any other medium. There are three principal forms of treating

xii

INTRODUCTORY NOTE

a device; I will call them the Imposed, Extended, and the
Continuous forms. By the Imposed form I mean a design where
the letters are written or interlaced directly over one another.
In the Extended form the letters are interlaced or written side
by side. In the Continuous form the device runs from beginning
to end without a break. In the Imposed form the principal letter,
whether it is first or final, should be accentuated, cither by making
it slightly larger, heavier, or in some other way best suited to the
material in which it is being produced, it may be colour or texture.
For the Extended form, if the letters are to be read in the order
in which they follow one another, all may be treated alike. In
this form, however, it is often advisable, for design and balance,
especially when filling a circular space, to place the principal
letter in the centre; in that case it may be drawn larger, and in
some other way made more important. The Continuous form
should read as the letters would be written, and care must be-
taken to place them so that they will not appear to read in some
other way. It is intended that the Monograms and Ciphers shown
in the following plates be considered as outlines only, as models
or working drawings. The solid or tint grounds need not be
taken as part of the design ; they are intended to show which are
planned in a round, and which in a square panel. There are but a
few cases in which any detail is given that would apply to a particular
craft, or suggest the material in which they are to be worked.
Each artist or craftsman can use the forms, supplying his own

xiii

MONOGRAMS AND CIPHERS

detail to suit the technique of the work in hand. By this means
the book should be equally useful to any craft. With this broad
rendering it will be noticed that some of the designs do not appear
to read in the order described ; in such cases the important letter
requires that detail which I have suggested in some instances with
a tint or black. The order of description is followed throughout
the book for the sake of easy reference; it is only departed from
in a few places where one reading only is intended, as in the
LRR on Plate LXXXIV, the continuous Monogram NMN on
Plate LXXXVII, and the continuous Cipher WTW on Plate ex.

Before proceeding further I should state the difference
between a Monogram and a Cipher. This is necessary, as the
two devices are constantly being miscalled ; some authorities too,
while correctly describing a Monogram, give a Cipher for illustra-
tion. A Monogram is a combination of two or more letters, in
which one letter forms part of another and cannot be separated
from the whole. A Cipher is merely an interlacing or placing
together of two or more letters, being in no way dependent for
their parts on other of the letters.

Of the two classes Monograms are the more interesting,
probably on account of their being more difficult to plan, though I
think they are rarely as pleasing to the eye as the Cipher, except
in the very severest forms. Compare the whole plate of Ciphers,
cxiv, with the next plate, cxv, composed entirely of Monograms.

The difficulty in designing Monograms does not so often lie

xiv

INTRODUCTORY NOTE

in being able to plan the Monogram, as in being able to produce
one that will be read by others, and where all the letters will read,
and those only that are intended. When we begin to put two
or three letters together that are made up of one another into a
single unit, other letters are suggested or occur in the device not
intended; or again, two or three of the letters will be so apparent
that the third or fourth will only be known to the designer or
owner. Take, for instance, the PQR on Plate c\\ ; the small
device is the better one of the two, but few will read it other than
PQ, QR, or PR. Personally I prefer a design that is a little-
obscure, if the lines are good, if it is a fine piece of ornament.

A Monogram or Cipher is in all cases intended for ornament,
whether used as a mark of ownership by private individuals, or for
a company, or a trade-mark. For purposes of commerce it is of
course important that the device should be distinct and easily read.
The same might apply also to the design for a club or society
mark. For private use, however, where the device is to enrich
a piece of jewellery, plate, the binding of a book, a piece of
furniture, or part of the decoration of a house, it should in the
first place be a good design. If the conceit is legible to the
owner, and is of such fine proportion as to be thoroughly satisfying
* Everything in the shop marked in plain figures'?

Some of the most beautiful Ciphers I have seen are to be found
on old French bindings, many of which would be unintelligible if

xv

MONOGRAMS AND CIPHERS

we did not know for whom the books were bound. These Ciphers
form in many instances the sole decoration of the binding, some-
times but a single impression appearing on each side, yet the book
satisfies one as being perfectly decorated. This is so often the
case with the Monogram and Cipher it may be the only ornament
that is to enrich a fine piece of workmanship that in such places
it should be a piece of choice design.

This brings us to that disputed point in this branch of art,
the reversing of letters. For my own part I have no hesitation
whatever in reversing a letter, or turning it upside down, or any
other way, if it will produce a good piece of ornament. It is just
as easy to fill a space, and fill it with good balance, with the letters
facing as we are accustomed to see them, but this method will
rarely produce that grace, beauty of line, and easy balance that
letters of similar form turned toward one another will give. As
an instance of this I would go no further than a single illustration
which must be familiar to all the Monogram HDD of Henry n
and Diana of Poitiers Henri Deux, Diane. It matters not where
we find this, in the decoration of a ceiling, in enamel or painted
ornament, or as a tooled book-binding, it has a dignity and feeling
of easy repose that is never tiring. It would have been just as simple
for the designer to have made a Monogram of these letters without
reversing one of the D's, but no other possible arrangement would
give the grace of line we find in this device. Another excuse for
the reversing or turning upside down of a letter is, that when the

xvi

INTRODUCTORY NOTE

letters A, B, C, D, E, K, M, N, S, V, W, and Y occur repeated,
you often get by turning a letter over or upside down a design
that will read the same from all points of view. This advantage-
must be apparent to all, where the Monogram or Cipher is to be
seen from different positions, as it will be, for instance, in the top of
an inlaid table, a ceiling, a tiled or inlaid floor, or in the decoration
of some small object like a finely bound book that will lie on a
table, and on many a piece of the goldsmith's and silversmith's work.
The H, I, N, O, S, X, and Z can be drawn in Roman so
as to appear the same upside down, and do not require to be
turned over or stood on their heads; but with the letters
A, M, V, W, and Y, though they will not require reversing where
two occur in a combination, one will have to be turned upside-
down to make the design read the same from all points of view.
If there arc only the two letters, this will be simple, but if three
or four letters are to be put together, it will depend on what
the third or fourth letter is whether this is possible or not. I
do not hold with doubling one of the letters in a device simply
to turn over and make symmetry. If there is not a repeat letter,
or a letter of similar form in the combination of letters to be put
together, all letters should be doubled if symmetry, or reading
from various points of view, must be had. On Plate LXXXV
will be found a Cipher LT, planned without reversing to read the
same upside down ; a third letter, H, N, O, S, X, or Z, could be
introduced without altering the LT, so that the combination of

xvn

MONOGRAMS AND CIPHERS

three letters would read in the same way, whether looked at from
the top or the bottom. There are but few letters that will plan
in this way. When it is required of a design that it will read from
all points of view, Roman letters will usually be found to give the
most satisfactory result.

Intermixture of styles should always be avoided. If the Roman
and Gothic are found too severe to suit a given subject, the Cursive
and Rustic letters with their easy flowing lines can be made to
fill almost any space one will be called upon to fill with either
Monogram or Cipher.

A device besides being of one style of letter should also be
pure as a whole ; plan either a Monogram or a Cipher, but don't
combine the two. The only excuse that might be advanced for
the mongrel form, would be where a combination of three or more
letters contained conjoined or hyphened words, represented by,
say, AB-B or BC-D. Here the B-B and the C-D would form
Monograms, the A and the B separate letters interlaced into them.
I have given illustrations of this mixed device on Plate n, BBA ;
and on Plate XLII, EEO. For this last device there is no excuse,
except as a trade-mark to be written quickly ; a circle with
three horizontal strokes, an upright stroke connecting the three
in the centre, forming a solid device, EEO, on the lines of the
Cipher FFO on Plate XLIX.

When planning a device avoid, if it is at all possible to do so,
having three lines crossing at the same point, making three planes.

xvm

INTRODUCTORY NOTE

There is always a confusion in the interlacing if there are more
than two planes, which produces a clumsy appearance in the
design. There are cases when slanting or curved lines come-
across a straight line, where three crossings could only he avoided
by contorting one of the letters ; in such a place it will be better
to allow the three planes. Examples of Ciphers having three-
crossings at one point will be found on Plate XL, K.K, Plate
LXXXIX, MMT, and on Plate xci, YM. Ciphers not inter-
woven, but placed side by side forming decorative lines, will be
found on Plates xxm, xxxix, XLVII, and i.x. One with the
letters written one within another, a useful form for trade-
marks, is the CCG on Plate xxn.

A number of the plates have the nine designs carried out in
one style. These should be useful as examples of the dirk-rent
characters of letters, as specimen pages for styles. 1 have grouped
them under four heads as follows :

ROMAN.

Plate LXXXI, light. Plate LXXXII, light, with cord and tassel.
Plate LXXXVII, uniform stroke, small serifs. Plate xevn, sans
serif, with cord and tassel.

GOTHIC.

Plate xn, heavy. Plate LXXXVIII, light, pointed. Plate xcn,
heavy, ending in leaf-forms. Plate xcm, heavy, suggesting low
relief, for stone- or wood-carving. Plate c, black-letter.

xix

MONOGRAMS AND CIPHERS

CURSIVE.

Plates xm and xv, foliated, embroidery. Plate LXXXIII,
continuous. Plate LXXXIV, half- cursive, upright. Plate LXXXV,
slanting. Plate LXXXVI, upright, uniform stroke. Plate xc,
cursive-Roman, thin, uniform stroke. Plate xcix, light, upright,
flourish.

RUSTIC.

Plate xi, jewellery. Plate xx, two-colour. Plate xxxv,
flourish. Plates xci, xciv, xcv, and xcvi, upright. Plate xcvin,
quill-rustic.

Monograms and Ciphers of three different letters will be
found on Plates cxiv, cxv, and cxvi. On Plates cxvn to cxxi
are firm-marks of two letters joined with the Ampersand, &.
Plates cxxn to cxxvn show an alphabet with the '& Co.,'
examples being given in round and square form. The last one
of these plates contains also five examples of Numerals in
Cipher, 1905, 1906, 1907, 1908, and 1909. Sacred Devices
and Names fill Plates cxxvm to cxxxn. Plates cxxxin and
cxxxiv are made up of Labels and three-letter Monograms.
The letters for the Monograms are taken at random from a
list of authors. The last plate, cxxxv, is a suggestion for the
decorative treatment of Sacred Inscriptions in Monogram and
Cipher, following the style of the Italian Renaissance.

One plate has been added to the work, engraved by

xx

INTRODUCTORY NOTE

Mr. Thomas Moring, which shows some few ways in which
these designs can be intelligently interpreted for a particular craft.
It also shows how the character of a design may he preserved while
a change is made in the letters or in their position. Plate i. of the
work was taken as the model. The PPF has been altered to FPF;
to read RS. In the FFR the R has been made into a P, an R
substituted for the reversed F, and with a slightly different treatment
of the second F, the whole made to read RFP. In the sixth design
the reversed R has been turned back, a very slight difference <>l
treatment in all the letters being necessary to plan thi^ well. The
last three designs continue in the same way. A comparison ot
the engraved plate with Plate i. will show with what little alteration
a different character or reading can be introduced into a design.

I trust there will be found something in this book to please all
tastes, if only a single device. For any errors there may be in the
work I am alone responsible. In the drawing of the plates I have-
been ably assisted by different members of the studio. I am
also indebted for the whole of Plate x. One error has passed me
unnoticed till the part was published. What should have been DP,
on Plate xxxiv, I have drawn OP ; this, though a correct Cipher,

is out of place on this plate.

A. A. TURBAYNE.

CARLTON STUDIO,
LONDON, March 1906.

XXI

MONOGRAMS

AND
CIPHERS

EPF

QF

FF

RS

RFP

FS

SR

SUGGESTIONS AS TO VARYING TREATMENT

BY THE ENGRAVER OF THE DESIGNS IN THIS WORK

AA

AA

AA

VARIOUS -TREATMENTS-OP -THE -SAME -DESIGN

PLATE I AA

AA

AA

AB

BA

AAB

BBA

AC

CA

AAC

PLATE II AA, AB, AC

AE

EA

AAE

EEA

AF

FA

AAF

FFA

AC

e

PLATE IV AE, AF, AC,

GA

AAG

GGA

AH

HA

AAH

HHA

AI

AAI

PLATE V AG, AM, AI

1IA

AJ

JA

AAJ

JJA

AK

KA

AAK

KKA

PLATE VIAI. AJ, AK

AL

LA

AAL

LLA

AM

MA

AAM

MMA

AN

PLATE VII AL, AM, AN

(

NA

AAN

NNA

AO

AAO

OOA

AP

PA

AAP

6

PLATE VI1I-AN, AO, AP

PPA

AQ.

QA

AR

RA

AAR

RRA

AS

SA

PLATE IX AP, AQ, AR, AS

AAS

SSA

AT

TA

TTA

AU

UA

AAU

UUA

AM

PLATE X AS, AT, AU

AV

VA

AW

WA

AAW

WWA

AX

AY

AZ

6

PLATE XI AV, AW, AX, AY, AZ

PLATE XII- BB, BC, BD

EEB

BBF

EB

FFB

BBE

BG

e

PLATE XIII BE, BF, BG

GB

BBG

GGB

BH

HB

BBH

HHB

BI

BBI

PLATE XIV-BG, BH, BI

PLATE XVBI, BJ, BK, BL

BBL

LLB

BM

MB

BBM

MMB

HN

NB

BBN

6

PLATE XVIBL, BM, BN

NNB

BO

OB

BBO

OOB

BP

BBP

PPB

e

PLATE XVII BN, BO, BP

BR

BBR

RRB

BS

SB

BBS

SSB

6

PLATE XVIII-BQ, BR, BS

BT

TB

BBT

TTB

BU

UB

BBU

UUB

BV

e

PLATE XIX BT, BU, BV

VB

BBV

BW

WB

WWB

BBW

BX

BY

BZ

e

PLATE XX- BV, BW. BX, BY, BZ

CCD

DDG

CE

E c

CCE

EEC

6

PLATE XXI CC, CD, CE

CF

FC

CCF

FFC

CG

GC

CCG

GGC

CH

e

PLATE XXII CF, CG, CH

HC

CCH

HHC

C I

1C

CGI

IIC

PLATE XXIII CH, CI, CJ

CCJ

JJC

CK

KG

CCK

KKC

CL

LC

CCL

8

6

PLATE XXIV -CJ, CK, CL

LLC

CM

MC

GGM

MMC

CN

NC

CCN

NNC

6

PLATE XXV CL, CM, CN

CO

oc

ceo

ooc

CCP

PPG

CQ

e

PLATE XXVI CO, CP, CQ

CR

RRC

CCS

RC

CS

SSC

CCR

SC

CT

PLATE XXVII CR, CS, CT

TC

CCT

TTC

CU

uc

ecu

uuc

cv

vc

PLATE XXVUlCT. CU, CV

ccv

we

cw

we

ccw

wwc

ex

CY

cz

PLATE XXIX CV, CW, CX, CY, CZ

DD

DE

ED

DDE

EED

DF

FD

DDF

FFD

6

PLATE XXX-DD, DE, DF

DG

GD

DDG

GGD

DH

HD

DDH

HHD

DI

6

PLATE XXXI DG, DH, DI

DDI

IID

DK

KD

DDK

8

6

PLATE XXXII Dl, DJ, DK

KKD

DL

LD

DDL

LLD

DM

MD

DDM

MMD

PLATE XXXIII DK, DL, DM

e

DN

ND

DON

NND

DO

OD

DDO

OOD

DP

6

PLATE XXXIV DN, DO, DP

PD

DDP

PPD

DQ

DR

RD

DDR

RRD

DS

PLATE XXXV DP, DQ, DR, DS

SD

DOS

SSD

DT

TD

DDT

TTD

DU

UD

PLATE XXXVI-DS, DT, DO

DDU

UUD

DV

VD

DW

WD

DDW

WWD

DX

6

PLATE XXXVII DU, DV, DW, DX

DY

D Z

EE

EF

FE

EEF

FFE

EG

GE

6

PLATE XXXVIII DY, DZ, EE, EF, EG

EEC

GGE

EH

mra

HE

EEH

HHE

El

EEI

HE

PLATE XXXIX EG, EH, El

EEJ

KE

EEK

KKE

EL

LE

6

PLATE XL-EJ, EK, EL

EEL

LLE

EM

ME

EEM

MME

EN

NE

EEN

6

PLATE XLI EL, EM, EN

NNE

EO

EEO

OOE

EP

PE

EEP

PPE

6

PLATE XLII EN, EO, EP, EQ

QE

RE

ES

kJ

ER

ER

HER

RRE

SE

EES

6

PLATE XLIII EQ, ER, ES

5SE

ET

TE

EET

TTE

EU

UE

EEU

UUE

PLATE XLIV ES, ET, EU

EV

WE

EEW

WWE

EX

EY

EZ

FF

6

PLATE XLV EV, EW, EX, EY, EZ, FF

FG

GF

FFG

GGF

FH

HF

FFH

HHF

Fl

6

PLATE XLVI FG, FH, Fl

FFI

IIP

FJ

FK

KF

FFK

KKF

FL

PLATE XLVII FI, FJ, FK, FL

LF

FFL

LLF

FM

MF

FFM

MMF

FN

NF

6

PLATE XLVI1I FL, FM, FN

-'"

': . > *

i . . .

FFN

NNF

FO

OF

FFO

OOF

FP

PF

FFP

e

PLATE XLIX FN, FO, FP

PPF

FQ

FR

RF

FFR

RRF

FS

5F

FFS

PLATE L FH. Kg, KR, FS

SSF

FT

TF

FFT

TTF

FU

CR

UF

FFU

UUF

e

PLATE LI FS, FT, FU

IV

VI

I-'W

FFW

WWF

FX

FY

FZ

6

PLATE L1I-KV, KW, FX, FV, FZ

GG

GH

HG

GGH

HHG

GI

GGI

IIG

GJ

PLATE LIII GO, GH, GI, GJ

GL

LG

GGL

PLATE LIVGJ, GK, GL

LLG

GM

MG

GGM

MMG

GN

NG

GGN

NNG

PLATE LV GL, GM, GN

OOG

GP

PG

GGP

PPG

GQ

e

PLATE LVI GO, GP, GtJ

QG

GR

GGR

RRG

SG

GGS

RG

G5

SSG

e

PLATE LVII GQ, GR, GS

GT

TCI

GOT

TTG

GU

UG

GGU

UUG

GV

6

PLATE LV1II-GT, CiU, GV

W

GGW

WWG

GX

"TfT,

GY

e

PLATE LIX GV, GW, GX, GY, GZ, HH

HI

HHI

111 I

HK

KH

HHK

1

e

I'LATE LX III, HJ, UK

KKH

HL

LH

MH

HHM

MMH

PLATE LXI HK, HL, HM

HN

NH

HHN

NNH

HO

HHO

OOH

HP

PH

ffl

e

PLATE LXII UN, HO, HP

HHP

PPH

HQ

QH

HR

RH

HHR

RRH

HS

PLATE LXIII HP, HQ, IIR, HS

HHS

SSH

HT

TH

HHT

TTH

HU

UH

6

PLATE LXIV-HS, HT, HU

HHU

UUH

HV

HW

HHW

WWH

HX

HY

PLATE LXVHU, HV, HW, HX, HY

KI

UK

KKI

PLATE LXVI HZ, II, IJ. IK.

1L

IIL

LLI

IM

IIM

MMI

NI

UN

NNI

e

PLATE LXVII IL, IM, IN

IO

no

ooi

IP

IIP

PPI

iQ

IR

IIR

e

PLATE LXVIH-IO, IP, IQ, IR

RRI

IS

IIS

SSI

IT

IIT

TTI

IU

IIU

e

PLATE LXIX IR, IS, IT, IU

IW

IIW

WWI

IZ

6

PLATE LXX 1U, IV, IW, IX, IY, IZ

e

PLATE LXXI-JJ, JK, JL, JM

MJ

JJM

MMJ

NNJ

JJO

e

PLATE LXXII-JM. JN, JO

oo;

(1

JJP

PPJ

JQ

QJ

a

e

PLATE LXXIII JO, JP, JQ, JR

RRJ

JS

s;

JJS

SSJ

JT

TJ

JJT

I

e

PLATE LXXIV-JR, JS, JT

TTJ

UUJ

JJV

PLATE LXXV JT, JU, JV, JW

KK

KL

LK

KKL

LLK

PLATE LXXVI JW, JX, JY. JZ, KK. KL

^

:

.

MMK

KN

KKN

NNK

KO

PLATE LXXVIIKM, KN, KO

OK

KKO

OOK

KP

PK

KKP

PPK

KQ

QK

e

PLATE LXXVIII-KO, KP,

KR

RK

KKS

SSK

KKR

K.T

e

PLATE LXXIX KR, KS, KT

KU

UK

KKU

UUK

KV

VK

PLATE LXXX KT, KU, KV

KKV

KW

WK

KY

KZ

ZK

@

PLATE LXXXI KV, KW, KX, KV, KZ

LL

LM

ML

17 (

H/JS

LLM

MML

LN

NL

LLN

NNL

e

PLATE LXXX1I JLL, LM, LN

LO

OOL

LLP

OL

LP

LPP

LLO

PL

L

PLATE LXXXIII LO, LP, LQ

LR

RL

LLR

LRK

LS

(.

HrK
PMI

SL

LLS

SSL

PLATE LXXXIV LQ. LR, LS

LT

TL

LLT

LLU

UUL

LV

PLATE LXXXVLT, LU, LV

VL

LW

LLW

WWL,

LX

LY

YL

LZ

PLATE LXXXVI LV, LW, LX, LY, LZ

**

;

,

MM

MN

NM

MMN

NMN

MO

OM

MMO

OOM

6

PLATE LXXXVII MM, MN, MO

MP

PM

MMP

MR

RM

MMR

6

PLATE LXXXV1H MP, Mg, MR

RRM

MS

SM

MMT

TTM

ffi

e

PLATE LXXXIX MR, MS, MT

)

MU

UM

MMT

Kr ^/d

UUM

MV

\'M

MW

WM

6

PLATE XC MU, MV, MW

W\VM

MX

MY

YM

MZ

N N

NO

ON

NNO

PLATE XCI MW, MX, MY, MZ, NN, NO

OON

NP

PN

NNP

PPN

NR

NQ

RN

e

PLATE XCII-NO, NP, NQ, NR

NNR

RRN

N S

SN

NNS

SSN

NT

TN

NNT

PLATE XCIII NR, NS, NT

TTN

NU

UN

NNU

UUN

NV

VN

N W

WN

6

PLATE XCIV-NT, NU, NV, NW

NNW

WWN

NX

NY

NZ

00

OP

PO

OOP

6

PLATE XCV NW, NX, NY, NZ, OO, OP

FPO

OC

OR

RO

OOR

RRO

OS

so

oos

6

PLATE XCVIOP, OQ, OR, OS

GOT

TTO

OU

OV

VO

6

PLATE XCVII OS, OT, OU, OV

oov

wo

ow

wo

oow

\\'\X'O

ox

OY

oz

la

PLATE XCVIII 0V, OW, OX, OY, OZ

pp

c

Q.P

PR

RP

PPR

\)

PRR

PS

SP

PLATE XCIX PP, PQ, PR, PS

TP

PPT

TTP

PU

UP

PPU

PLATE C-PS, PT, PU

UUP

PV

VP

PPV

PW

WP

PX

6

PLATE CI PIT, PV, PW, PX

PY

v' p

PZ

QQ

QS

SQ

QT

ft)

6

PLATE CII PY, PZ, tw, gR, gs,

TQ

QU

UQ

QX

QY

YQ

QZ

PLATE CIII tJT, QU, QW, QX, QY, QZ

-'.-

RR

RRS

TR

RS

SR

SSR

RT

RRT

TTR

6

PLATE CIV-RR, RS, RT

-

\u

RU

UR

RRU

UUR

RV

VR

RW

WR

RRW

6

PLATE CV RU, RV, RW

WWR

RX

RY

YR

RZ

SS

ST

TS

SST

6

PLATE CVIRW, RX, RY, RZ, SS, SI

TTS

USS

SSV

su

U5

SV

VS

sw

ws

e

PLATE CVIIST, SU, SV, SW

sws

wvrs

sx

SY

YS

SYS

sz

TT

TU

PLATE CV1II-SW. SX, SV, SZ, TT, TU

UT

TTU

UUT

TV

VT

TTV

TW

TTW

6

PLATE CIX TU, TV, TW

WTW

TX

TY

YT

TTY

TZ

UU

UV

vu

6

PLATE CX-TW, TX, TY, TZ, UU. UV

uw

wu

wwu

uuw

ux

UY

YU

uz

vv

e

PLATE CXI UW, UX, UY, UZ, VV

vw

wv

W\W

VX

VY

YV

W

vz

ww

6

PLATE CXII-VW, VX, VY, VZ, WW, WX

WY

XX

XY

XZ

YY

YZ

ZZ

6

PLATE CXIII WY, WZ, XX, XV, XZ, YY, YZ, ZZ

ABC

BCD

CDE

DEF

EFG

FGH

CHI

HIJ

IJK

PLATE CXIV THREE-LETTER CIPHERS,

w

JKL

KLM

LMN

MNO

NOP

P Q. R

RST

PLATE CXV THREE-LETTER MONOGRAMS

STU

STU

TUV

TUV

UVW

UVW

vwx

WXY

XYZ

6)

6

PLATE CXVI THREE LETTER CIPHERS AND MONOGRAM

A8B

B8A

B&C

C8B

C&D

D&C

D&E

E&D

E&F

6

PLATE CXVII TWO LETTERS WITH THE &

F&G

G&F

G&H

HSG

H&I

6

PLATE CXVH1-TWO LETTERS WITH THE &

K8J

K&L

L&K

L&M M&L

T

M8N

N0M

N&O

O&N

PLATE CXIX TWO LETTERS WITH THE &

O8P

P&O

Q8P

Q8R

R8S

S6R

S8T

e

PLATE CXX TWO LETTERS WITH THE It

T& 5

U&V

6

PLATE CXXI TWO LETTERS WITH THE &

A8C9LP

B0C9

B8C?

C8C9

C8C9

D8C9

E0C9

PLATE CXXII COMPANY CIPHERS

F8C2

F&C2

G8C2

H&C2

6

PLATE CXXIII COMPANY CIPHERS

K8C9

L#C9

L8C2

M8C9

M8C9

N8C9

PLATE CXXIV -COMPANY CIPHERS

m

*TA

N8C2

O&C9

O8C2

P<3C2

P<3C2

Q&C2

R0C2

e

e

PLATE CXXV COMPANY CIPHERS

58C2

S8C2

S&C1

S&C?

U8C2

6

PLATE CXXVI-COMPANY CIPHERS

W8C9

X8C9

Y8C2

Z8C9

1905

19O6

19O7

19O8

1909

6

PLATE CXXVII COMPANY CIPHERS, YEARS

IMS

XP AH

CHRIST

XPC

XP

ESUS

PLATE CXXVIII-SACRF.D DEVICES

MARY

XPZ

XPC

JOSEPH

RAO

INRI

IHS

6

PLATE CXXIX SACRED DEVICES

ALPHA

OMEGA

6

PLATE CXXX SACRED HEVICES

rr

IHS

IHS

IHS

XPC

IHC

IHC

XPS

IHS

PLATE CXXXI SACRED DEVICES

ANNO

AU

DOMINI

e

PLATE IXXXII-SACRED DEVICES

EAP

RWE

6

PLATE CXXXIII LABELS AND MONOGRAMS

LFA

JFC

EBB

6

PLATE CXXXIV LABELS AND MONCXJRAMS

ffl

PLATE CXXXV SACRED DEVICES

K 1)1 N K f K(i H

T ami A. CON s I' A H 1. F.

Printers In His MajrMy

NK

36MO

T8

1906

C.I

ROBA

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